Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Wiring Connection of Direct Current (DC) Motor

Connecting Direct Current (DC) Motors

It is of utmost importance to firstly know and understand the various internal configuration of the different types of DC motors before doing the actual wiring connection.  Although DC motors may appear to only have two leads for its external wiring connection terminals, it will serve best to habitually apply a good practice of knowing first the type of DC motor you are about to install before attempting any wiring connection and supplying power to run the motor.

To prevent burning the motor, make sure to firstly identify what specific type of DC motor you are about to connect, since there are three common types of Direct Current motors, the series field DC motor, the shunt field DC motor, and the compound wound DC motor. Each of these types are configured with distinct internal connection between its field coil and its armature.

Series Field DC Motor Connection - the connection of a series field motor is illustrated in Figure 1 below which shows the wiring connection to a two pole series motor.  The field coils are connected in series with the armature of the motor. The illustration shows three diagrams to provide visual explanation on how the external wiring leads are connected in relation to the internal components of the motor.

Three diagram methods showing the connections of a two pole series field Direct Current Motor
Figure 1 : Three diagrams showing the method of connection of a two pole series field Direct Current Motor

Shunt Field DC Motor Connection - The method of connection for a shunt field direct current motor is shown in figure 2 below.  The shunt fields wound around two opposite poles are connected together in series for alternate polarity and across the line leads.  The armature leads are also connected to the line so that the armature and the fields are in parallel.

Three diagrams showing the method of connection of a two pole shunt field Direct Current Motor
Figure 2 : Three diagrams showing the method of connection of a two pole shunt field Direct Current Motor

Compound DC Motor Connection - The method of connection for a compound wound direct current motor is shown in figure 3 below.  This type of DC motor combines both series field and shunt field included as part of the internal components of the motor.  The shunt fields are connected in series, to achieve proper polarity, and then connected across the line.  The series fields are also connected for proper polarity in series with the armature.

Three diagrams showing the method of connection of a two pole compound direct current motor
Figure 3 : Three diagrams showing the method of connection of a two pole compound direct current motor

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